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From the Russian Military Catalog
Tank T-90

t90_2.jpg (37944 bytes)

Weight (tons): 46,5
Speed (km/h): 60
Dimensions (m): 9'530/6'860 x 3'460 x 2'226
M./Engine: Diesel B84MC, twin stroke, multi-fuel, 6-cyl; 840 hp
Crew: 3
Power-to-weight ratio (hp/t): 18.68
Ground pressure (kg/sm2): 0.87
Fuel capacity (L): 1'600
Range (km): 650/500
"fording (m): 1.2/5.0

1 x 125 mm smoothbore gun
inline barr. AT + SA missiles
1 x 7,62 mm MG coaxial
1 x 12,7 mm AA MG
gun loading: a/m; stabilization: v/h; stowage: 43/28; coax.: 2'000;
AA- 300; elevation/depress.: 5'4/ 13';

type of rounds: APFSDS HE-FRAG HEAT Guided missile

Fire Control System:

Commander's: : day-and-night, passive with stabilization of field of view in vertical plane;
Gunner's: day sight with two plane stab. of field of view incorp. a laser range finder and a missile guidance capability; night sight passive with stab. of field of view in vert. plane;
Ballistic computer: takes into accounts all topometeoballistic conditions affect. firing accuracy;
Thermal imager: provision is made of install. of thermal imager


armour protection: from APFSDS, HEAT
dynamic protection: Yes
radiation protection Yes
thermal protection: Yes
dazzle painting: Yes
NBS system: Yes
fire- suppres. system: Yes
optoelectronic -sup. system: Yes
air condition: Yes
(c)1998 Military Parade JSC

   The T-90S Russian battle tank embodies advanced scientific solutions and in terms of its combat and technical characteristics is not inferior to the best foreign tanks, rather, it outdoes them in some parameters. 

T90s (c) Military Parade JSC

    By the early-1990s, the Uralvagonzavod State Production Association had developed and put into series production the T-90S new-generation      Russian gun-missile tank, incorporating the unique design solutions and the best layout and structural features of the T-72 and T-80 tanks.

The Uralvagonzavod State Production Association developed the T-90S tank following a thorough analysis and understanding of the tactics and strategy of employment of tanks in a modern combat environment and on the basis of extensive experience gained in the operation of the T-72 tank in different countries, including the results of their tests in severe conditions.

The T-90S tank features characteristics that are typical of all other Russian tanks: low weight, small size, powerful weaponry and high mobility.

The weight of the combat laden tank is 46.5 tons and its crew is three men.

The T-90S tank retains the basic national tank design concept, i.e. the classical layout, where the main armament is arranged within a rotating turret, the propulsion plant and transmission are arranged in the hull's rear, and the crew members are seated separately: the commander and the gunner sit in the fighting compartment, and the driver in the driver's compartment.
The T-90S tank's main armament is represented by a 125mm enhanced-accuracy smooth-bore gun mount featuring a built-in alignment system and an easily detachable barrel. The gun is stabilized in two planes and loaded by an autoloader, whose magazine stores 22 rounds to be fired first. The use of the autoloader has made it possible to bring the rate of fire to 7 or 8 rounds per minute, which is a significant advantage of this tank over the majority of its foreign competitors.

The high level of fire power has been achieved through the installation of a gun that features better ballistic properties. It is also attributable to the enhanced gun's firing accuracy and longer range (including firing missiles), application of more powerful ammunition, improved characteristics of the fire control system, and reduced first-round firing preparation time.

The capabilities of the tank's gun have been increased and, with the introduction of a guided weapons system, it can engage land-based armored and low-flying air targets. The guided weapons system employs a laser beam riding shaped-charge missile which is chambered by the autoloader and then fired through the tube.

The tank's ammunition allowance includes the armor-piercing discarding sabot, shaped-charge and high-explosive separate-loading projectiles, as well as one guided missile round.

The tank's auxiliary armament includes a 7.62mm machine gun, coaxial with the main ordnance, and a 12.7mm antiaircraft machine-gun mount.

The tank is propelled by a traditional diesel engine, which has the following major advantages in comparison with a gas-turbine plant (particularly in hot climates and sandy terrain):

only a minor power drop under high ambient temperatures; 
highly effective air cleaning and, as a result, high reliability of the engine in dusty areas; 
lower (1.8 to 2 times) fuel consumption.

The cost-effective propulsion plant installed on the T-90S tank enables the vehicle to develop a speed of up to 60 km/h and perform autonomous marches up to 550 km long without refueling.

Virtually every unit or system of this tank incorporates at least one new quality. The greatest improvement is the automated fire control system, allowing the commander and gunner to conduct aimed fire from the tank gun effectively over long ranges using projectiles and guided missiles, on the move and at halt, against moving and stationary targets, by day and night, as well as to fire the coaxial machine gun. 

The automated fire control system provides for: 

increased effective firing range; 
commander's stabilized battlefield observation capability, increased vision and firing range at night, overriding of the gun and machine-gun fire control; 
gunner's increased night vision capability, including the use of an IR sight. 

The automated fire control system is comprised of: 

a laser beam riding weapons system which makes it possible to fire a guided missile through the gun barrel on the move and at halt against fixed and moving targets at a distance of 100 to 5,000 m and kill the most sophisticated tank long before it comes within the effective range of its weapons systems; 
an optronic suppression system protecting the vehicle against semi automatically guided antitank missiles; 
an automatic all-round surveillance and detection system used to protect the tank against antitank projectiles fitted with laser homing heads. The system automatically jams laser range finders and target designators of antitank weapons control systems; 
an antiaircraft machine-gun mount enabling the commander, using the remote control drives and remaining under the protection of armor, to deliver aimed fire at air targets, and in stabilized mode at ground targets; 
reactive armor protection effective against armor-piercing discarding sabot and shaped-charge projectiles. The combination of the reactive armor protection with the laminated armor expands the tank's combat capabilities and enhances its ability to survive in extreme combat environments; 
a 1,000 hp turbo-supercharged diesel engine that has dramatically enhanced the vehicle's battlefield mobility and maneuverability characteristics; 
an air conditioner improving the crew's comfort. 

Implementation in the T-90S tank of some design innovations and application of up-to-date and future technologies have enhanced the tank's efficiency, operational capabilities, reliability and maneuverability. They have resulted in combat and technical characteristics overall 1.5 times the effectiveness of the T-72S tank. Such enhancements have been made due to: 

application of a new-generation fire control system; 
application of unique antitank systems featuring laser guidance and range finding facilities; 
improved fire control systems featuring a precise stabilizer and IR imager; 
enhanced properties of reactive armor and armor protection capability against hollow-charge and kinetic-energy projectiles; 
antiaircraft machine-gun mount remotely controlled from the commander's position;  
increased-power diesel engine. 

The installation of the new equipment, enhancing the T-90S tank's combat, operational and maintenance characteristics, left its overall dimensions approximately the same as those of the T-72S, except that it has become 2 tons heavier than its predecessor. Yet, the T-90S tank remains 8.1 to 8.7 tons lighter than Leclerc and Leopard-2, 10.7 tons lighter than M1A1 Abrams, and 16 tons lighter than the Challenger.

The T-90S tank features: 
automatic crew protection against weapons of mass destruction; 
anti-mine protection facilities; 
a quick-acting automatic fire-fighting system; 
new-generation communications facilities; 
design and technological solutions, reducing the probability of  detection and destruction of the tank. 

Enhancement of the tank's combat capabilities has made the vehicle more complex. Seemingly, this must lead to difficulties in its operation and maintenance, increase the time of its preparation for combat and require additional rigging. But neither of the above consequences have occurred because of the implementation of unique solutions in the tank. 

The T-90S tank is noted for:  
optimal adaptability to strenuous combat environments; 
high reliability of all units, assemblies and systems; 
excellent mobility and maneuverability regardless of road conditions, including high dust and mountains; 
low costs incurred in the training of skilled personnel. 

The T-90S tank can: 
perform underwater crossing of water obstacles up to 5 m deep and continue the assigned mission after the obstacle has been waded; 
without preparation: 
* ford water obstacles up to 1.2 m deep; 
* negotiate a trench up to 2.8 m wide; 
* negotiate a vertical obstacle up to 0.8 m high; 
* negotiate maximum gradient up to 30o. 

The T-90S tank is equipped with facilities to self-dig a hull-down position, and fittings for mounting mine-clearing equipment and can be shipped by any type of transport. 

The T-90S Russian battle tank embodies advanced scientific solutions and in terms of its combat and technical characteristics is not inferior to the best foreign tanks, rather, it outdoes them in some parameters. 

The tank's combat efficiency rises materially when used in cooperation with highly maneuverable engineering and technical support armored vehicles. 

The operational planning, training of personnel and conduct of maintenance procedures become much simpler if the tanks have a single base. 

A family of engineer-support armored vehicles developed by the Uralvagonzavod State Production Association from the T-90S tank retain the mobility, reliability and high standard of crew protection typical of the baseline tank. Due to this fact, the vehicles can be employed within tank units without any restraints. The following engineer-support armored vehicles have been developed:

BREM-1 multipurpose armored recovery vehicle; 
IMR-2MA mine and obstacle clearance vehicle; 
MTU-72 track bridge transportation and laying armored tracked vehicle. 

The unified chassis used in the production of tanks and armored vehicles and, consequently, similar operational and maintenance characteristics, as well as single signal communications and maintenance and repair systems, is what all armies in the world are striving for. 

This problem has been solved successfully on the T-90S tank. 

An enormous production base and skilled personnel perform the requisite servicing of tanks manufactured by the Uralvagonzavod Association, both in Russia and abroad.

To cite an example, from the early-1950s to the present the Uralvagonzavod has been supplying spare parts to the operators of T-54, T-55, T-62 and T-72 tanks and engineer-support armored vehicles developed on the basis of these tanks to maintain the equipment in constant combat readiness

For other Russian military hardware, visit the Russian Military Catalog

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